DOHA: June 18 was the hottest day in Doha last year with a maximum temperature of 47.7 degrees Celsius, and the coldest day of the year was January 23, with 8.6 degrees C, according to data released by the Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics yesterday.
The hottest month in 2012 was July, with an average maximum daily temperature of 43.3 degrees C measured at Doha International Airport. This was 1.8 degrees C more than the long-term average (1962-1992), says a report titled “Structure and content of the Environment Statistics Report 2013, lessons learnt and data shortcomings”, presented the ministry’s second environment statistics workshop.
Extreme temperatures of 45 degrees C and more are most likely from May to August. Last year, 17 days (one in May, six in June, eight in July and two in August) had maximum temperatures of 45 degrees C and above.
The average daily minimum and maximum temperatures of August from 2008-12 were higher than the corresponding long-term average (1962-1992). The highest daily average temperature observed in Qatar was in July 2000, at 49.6 degrees C.
In 2012, the highest average monthly relative humidity was observed in Doha, with 88 percent in January and December. In Doha the month with the lowest average monthly relative humidity was June, with 29 percent.
The report also contains data about air quality, groundwater levels, carbon emissions, waste generation and fish catch in the country, among others.
Compared to the WHO guidance value of 10 µg/m3 (annual average) the average annual concentration of PM2.5 was seven times higher at Movenpick, 11 times higher at Qatar University and eight times higher at Aspire Zone in 2012.
Concentrations of sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide are consistently below the national air quality standards. Only on one day in 2012 were carbon monoxide concentrations were above the quality standard (in Aspire Zone).
Groundwater levels in central Qatar and north Qatar show no significant trend and are slightly above sea level.
However, salinity in central Qatar shows an increasing trend.
The most recent calculation of the overall groundwater balance shows an annual overexploitation of 108.04 million m3 per year (2012).
Of all groundwater extractions, 92 percent are for agricultural purposes, the remaining eight percent are for domestic, municipal and industrial uses.
In 2010, Qatar contributed to 0.21 percent of the global GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions.
In 2010 the GHG emissions of Qatar were more than five times higher than in 1990 (from 11,775,000 tonnes in 1990 to 70,531,000 tonnes in 2010) and still show an increasing trend.
However, the emission intensity is decreasing significantly since the mid 1990s. The emission intensity per GDP has decreased from a maximum of 646.7 metric tonnes per QR1m GDP in 1993 to 248.2 metric tonnes per QR1m GDP in 2010. The peak of GHG emissions per capita was in 1997 with 67.6 metric tonnes per capita and has decreased to 41.1 metric tonnes per capita in 2010.
Out of the total GHG emissions in year 2007, 50 percent originated from the oil and gas sector.
From 1998 until 2007 the consumption of ozone depleting substances in Qatar decreased from 175.3 to 36.6 ODP tonnes per year (-79 percent). In the same period the annual per capita consumption decreased from 0.26 ODP kg to 0.03 ODP kg (-89 percent).
From 2007 to 2012 the consumption more than doubled up from 36.6 to 82.4 ODP tonnes per year and the per capita consumption increased by 50 percent.
Since the 1950s fish catch in terms of mass shows an exponential increase. From 1950 until 1999 total fish exploitation in Qatar is more than tenfold up from 400 to 4,397 metric tonnes per year. From 2000 until 2008 total fish exploitation also was more than doubled up from 7,140 to 17,688 metric tonnes per year. Since 2009 the total fish catch shows a decrease from 14,066 (2009) to 11,274 (2012) metric tonnes per year. Twenty percent of the mass of the fish caught in 2012 are classified as “over-exploited”, which means that there is a high risk of stock depletion for that particular species.
The number of fisherman has decreased by 31 percent since the year 2000, whereas the number of fishing boats remained at the same level (514 in 2000 and 499 in 2012).
Both the fish catch per boat and the fish catch per fisherman showed a rising tendency from 2000 until 2006. Since 2007 fish catches per boat and per fisherman are decreasing (from 38.8 metric tonnes/boat in 2006 to 22.6 metric tonnes/boat in 2012, from 5.7 metric tonnes/fisherman in 2006 to 3.2 metric tonnes/fisherman in 2012.).
Waste generation has been rising since 2008, from 8.26m tonnes a year to 11.83m in 2012. Qatar’s construction sector is the main source of wastes, as it accounts for 78.48 percent of the total wastes generated in 2012.
From 2008 to 2012 the per capita domestic waste generation rate has remained between 1.37 and 1.30 kg per person per day.
A total of 2,387 tonnes of domestic wastes were generated daily in 2012 which means an average per capita generation of 1.30 kg/day. In 2012 about 95 percent of the wastes were disposed of in landfills.